Automobile Casting Kev Paub Txog Kev Paub Thiab Nws Cov Ntawv Sib Tw Los Sib Pom Zoo Technology

1. Cov kev coj ua ntawm txoj kev tsim cov tsheb ciav hlau

1.1 kev tsim qauv ntawm tsheb ciav hlau

Nrog rau kev siv hluav taws xob txuag thiab txo cov nqi ntawm cov khoom siv yuav tsum tau nce ntxiv, ua kom tiav ntawm qhov zoo ntawm kev pov thawj, qhov qub stamping, vuam, forging thiab casting tsim ntau qhov chaw, los ntawm kev tsim tsim thiab kev ua kom zoo, Kev sib sau, tuaj yeem txo qhov hnyav ntawm qhov chaw thiab txo qhov ua tsis tiav ntawm tus txheej txheem, kom ua tiav qhov nyhav ntawm qhov chaw thiab kev ua haujlwm siab.

Txoj kev loj hlob ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntawm lub tsheb sib txuas yog pom tseeb hauv kev loj hlob ntawm nonferrous alloy castings. Thiaj li yuav siv tag nrho kev siv txoj kev pov thawj los ua kom tau cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov qauv ntawm cov castings, muaj ib qho kev tsim qauv ntawm lub rooj phaj,

Lub cev pob txha, cov pob txha kabmob, cov ncej puab thiab cov firewall, qhov luaj li cas ntawm lub castings tam sim no ua, yuav tsum zus tau 4 000 mus rau 5 000 t lossis ntau dua tonnage tuag casting machines.

1.2 Qhov nyhav ntawm cov tsheb ciav hlau

Los xyuas kom lub zog thiab kev nyab xeeb ntawm lub tsheb nyob rau hauv qhov chaw ntawm lub tsheb kom ntau li ntau tau kom txo tau qhov zoo ntawm qhov kev npaj, ua kom pom qhov hnyav, qhov no ua kom lub tsheb muaj zog, txo cov roj siv thiab txo cov pa pa phem. Lub tsheb txo ntawm 100 kg ntawm 100 grams, 100 km roj noj tau txo los ntawm 0.3 ~ 0.6 L, yog tias lub tsheb txo txo ​​10%, roj efficiency yuav nce ntawm 6% mus rau 8%. Nrog rau kev tiv thaiv ib puag ncig kev tiv thaiv thiab kev txuag hluav taws xob, qhov nyhav ntawm lub tsheb tau dhau los ua lub ntiaj teb txoj kev loj hlob kev tsheb, qhov nyhav ntawm cov khoom pov thawj tsheb tau ua ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cov tsheb castings.

1.2.1 Kev tsim los ntawm cov tsheb castings

Rau txoj kev nyab xeeb tag nrho ntawm cov castings, qhov sib npaug thickness tsim yog ib lub ntsiab tsim txoj kev tsheb casting. Txawm li cas los xij, lub ntsiab ntawm qhov sib npaug ntawm cov qauv sib npaug sib npaug yog tias qhov kev ua ntawm cov yam ntxwv tsis tuaj yeem siv tau thiab qhov nyhav ntawm qhov casting yog nce. Siv CAE tsom, topology optimization thiab lwm yam txhais tau tias tsim kho qhov tsim ntawm qhov chaw, li ntawd qhov chaw ntawm qhov kev ntxhov siab ntawm ntau qhov chaw nyob ze rau ntau qhov chaw ntawm phab ntsa thickness yog inconsistent, me me ntawm cov thinner khoom thickness los yog tsis kom txo cov khoom qhov ceeb thawj ntawm. Kev siv rau hauv koj tus account casting txoj kev ua tau tiav qhov tsim ntawm txoj kev teeb tsa castings, koj tuaj yeem ua tau ntau yam ntawm tsis zoo li tus zoo li cross-section. Kev tsim, kev siv CAE los yog topology optimization thiab lwm txoj kev los ntawm kev ntsuam xyuas kev ntxhov siab ntawm qhov chaw. Raws li kev faib tawm ntawm qhov kev quab yuam, txiav txim siab cov duab ntawm qhov chaw thiab lub nroog tej khoom tuab. Los ntawm qhov cuab yeej casting, khawb qhov thiab thickening, tau zoo heev txo qhov hnyav ntawm qhov chaw.

1.2.2 Lub teeb alloy lub tsheb castings

Kev siv cov txhuas thiab magnesium thiab lwm yam khoom siv sib tov yog qhov loj tshaj kev ntsuas ntawm cov neeg tsav tsheb tam sim no. Qhov ceev ntawm aluminium yog tsuas yog 1/3 ntawm cov hlau, thiab muaj kev nplua corrosion kuj thiab ductility. Qhov ceev ntawm magnesium yog me, tsuas yog 2/3 ntawm txhuas, zoo heev hauv high school nrum casting mob. Aluminium thiab magnesium tej zog (lub zog thiab qhov zoo) muaj ntau heev, kom txo tau qhov nyhav, txhim kho roj efficiency ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb. Tebchaws Asmeskas kev lag luam hauv ob lub xyoo dhau los los txhim kho kev sib tw, nrog rau kev siv ntau yam ntawm txhuas thiab magnesium castings thiab kev sib tw ua ke.

1.2.3 Kev ua yeeb yam siab ntawm kev pov thawj tsheb

Txhim kho qhov kev ua tau zoo ntawm cov khoom, yog li ntawd qhov nyhav ntawm qhov chaw ua haujlwm tuaj yeem tiv taus ntau dua, nws yog ib txoj hauv kev zoo kom txo tau qhov nyhav ntawm cov castings. Stent-type castings account rau ib feem tseem ceeb ntawm castings, thiab kev loj hlob ntawm castings kuj yog ib qho ntawm cov tsom. Los ntawm kev kho cua sov thiab lwm yam kev ntsuas los ua cov ntaub ntawv hloov cov kev hloov, qhov no ua kom muaj zog ntawm qhov chaw, nruj los yog muaj zog, yuav pab txo qhov nyhav ntawm qhov chaw.

Isotonic quenched ductile hlau, tsis tsuas yog lub zog ntawm hlau tshaj li dog dig hlau tau zoo tuaj, thiab qhov ceev yog qis dua cov hlau, qhov ceev ntawm 7.1 g / cm3, thaum lub cam khwb cia hlau ntom ntawm 7.8 g / cm3, pom zoo kom ntev xyoo, cov khoom siv Kev siv cov isothermal quenching zas hlau, nyob rau tib qhov loj ntawm castings nyob rau hauv cov kev mob ntawm lub teeb, 10% sib dua dua hlau. Dongfeng Motor Company nyob rau hauv ib hom qee yam coj mus muag tsheb tau siv coj los zij cov hlau zas nrum hlau es tsis txhob steel lub luj pov thawj ua haujlwm,

Thiab rau lub isothermal quenching ductile hlau pieces ntawm siab zog yam ntxwv ntawm 14 tshem tawm qhov chaw mus rau hauv cov rooj tsav xwm kev tsim kho tshiab. Cov lus 1 yog kev siv cov isothermal quenching ductile hlau khoom tom qab hloov cov nyhuv, qhov hnyav tag nrho yuav txo tau ze li ntawm 40%, cov nyhuv yog qhov tseem ceeb. Nws yuav tsum tau sau tseg tias qhov nyhav nyhav nyhav nyob rau hauv Table 1 tsis tsuas yog cov khoom hloov chaw, tab sis qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov qauv tsim. Feem ntau, cov khoom hloov tshiab rau cov tsheb ciav hlau feem ntau yog nrog los ntawm kev tsim qauv ntawm qhov chaw.

Nyob rau hauv txhuas alloy thiab magnesium alloy castings kuj siv siab zog, siab tawv ntaub ntawv los hloov cov thawj lub teeb alloy poob phaus raws li daim ntawv thov ntawm cov ntaub ntawv kawm siab kom poob ntxiv, lub tebchaws United States General Motors Corporation los hloov lub siab -performance AE44 alloy Txhuas thawj txhuas siv, kev siv high-pressure casting txoj kev tsim cov khoom khoob zuj zus, hauv aluminium alloy yuag poob vim qhov poob ntxiv 6 kg.

2. Txoj kev loj hlob ntawm kev siv cov cuab yeej cuab tam tsheb

2.1 Nyias cov txheej txheem cov txheej txheem cov tshuab ua tshuab castings

Nrog txoj kev lag luam hauv tsheb thiab kev thov kom muaj kev txuag hluav taws xob thiab txo qis qis, qhov nyhav ntawm qhov khoom seem yog qhov ntau dua. Los ntawm kev tsim cov khoom tsim, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cav thaiv. FAW Casting Co., Ltd. rau lub FAW Volkswagen ntau lawm cam khwb cia hlau kheej, piv txwv li, thaum ntxov ntawm 06A lub tog raj kheej phab ntsa thickness 4.5 hli ± 1.5 hli, EA111 lub tog raj kheej phab ntsa thickness 4 hli ± 1 hli, tam sim no huab hwm coj ntau lawm ntawm EA888Evo2 kheej kheej phab ntsa thickness 3.5 hli ± 0.8 hli, tom ntej no tiam EA888Gen.3 lub tog raj kheej khoom qauv ntau dua, phab ntsa thickness ntawm xwb 3 hli ± 0.5 hli, yog thinnest grey cam khwb cia hlau kheej kheej. Nyob rau hauv qhov ntau lawm, muaj qee qhov teeb meem xws li cov tub ntxhais uas tawg, kev tshav mis thiab phab ntsa thickness fluctuating. Txawm li cas los xij, los ntawm kev tswj cov tub ntxhais cov xuab zeb thiab cov xuab zeb, Tiam sis tsis tuaj yeem ua raws li lub EA888Gen.3 lub tog raj kheej uas yuav tsum tau ua, yuav tsum yog siv tag nrho cov txheej txheem tseem ceeb.

2.2 Aluminium-magnesium alloy loj-txheej yam khoom siv tshuab

Nrog rau kev thov kom muaj kev txuag hluav taws xob, kev tiv thaiv ib puag ncig thiab txo nqi, aluminium-magnesium alloy loj-scale yam ntxwv casting tau los ua ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev loj hlob, thiab nws cov cuab yeej tsim tau ua tam sim no txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cov pob kub kub. Tam sim no, lub ntsiab tsim tshuab ntawm aluminium-magnesium alloy loj-teev yam ntxwv yog high-pressure casting, extrusion casting thiab low-pressure casting. Raws li cov khoom siv high-pressure casting efficiency, cov khoom zoo tau ua cov txheej txheem tseem ceeb, txoj kev loj hlob ntawm nws txoj kev siv tshuab yog qhov sib xyaw hauv cov txheej txheem kev lag luam uas yooj yim rau curl, yooj yim tsim lub stomata hauv casting, tsis muaj peev xwm teeb meem kev kub ntxhov.